Microbial processes in the deep basement aquifer are probably more important than previously thought. Two contributions focus on this recent extension of research of the biosphere to greater depth in the Earth. This book represents the first multidisciplinary and integrated account of deep groundwater hydrology in crystalline basement. It is of interest to hydrologists and hydrogeologists working with water in crystalline rocks, but also to solid earth geophysicists, geochemists and petrologists with an interest in fluids in the crust.
Scientists involved in nuclear waste disposal programs and geothermal energy development will find a wealth of stimulating ideas in this volume. Log In. My Account. Remember to clear the cache and close the browser window. Search For:. Advanced Search. Select an Action. In contrast, the Satlins represent only the first few centimeters of the geomorphology, while the Maglins do not necessarily correlate with the high yielding wells. Therefore, we believe that Hydrolins qualify as more effective indicators of groundwater occurrence than Maglins or Satlins. Order of potentiality of these lineaments for groundwater prospects is shown in eq.
While additional wells are available in the watershed, we selected only those wells with authentic and verifiable records to ensure the veracity of results. The correlation coefficient for wells with all the DOI is found to be 0. It reduces to 0. Thereafter correlation coefficient starts increasing to finally reach 0.
In case of zones deeper than TGWH, chances of isolated fractures are significantly reduced and a clear positive correlation is achieved. Some zones may have very good fracture connectivity, whereas others may be isolated fractured zones. Thus the wells at connected fractured pathways will experience increased yield with depth. Whereas isolated fractures may experience lowering of yield with depth.
The correlation coefficient for shallower DOI-wells is found to be 0. The deeper zones beyond the TGWH are dominated by fractures with regional connectivity. While this result has useful implications, the trend beyond TGWH is based only on 7 data points. More data indeed would be useful to establish the exact nature of this trend. Geochemical and isotope data are utilized to understand how Hydrolins control the hardrock hydrodynamics.
The bedrock fractures, in general, may have varying depth depending on local geological condition. In such conditions, groundwater occurrences are most likely expected to be more at deeper horizons under the influence of gravity. A deeper water saturated fracture will also increase the DOI. However, deeper well with strong interconnectivity and high transmissivity of fractures will facilitate movement of groundwater and hence will show lower age. In addition, C dated age of water samples of the highest yielding well i. This establishes the strong interconnectivity of fractures carrying fresh water recharged from the latest monsoon precipitation.
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Although both natural and anthropogenic sources introduce NO 3 contents into the groundwater, anthropogenic sources are recognized to be potential and most probable source causing increased nitrate content in groundwater. In such a case NO 3 concentration ideally decreases with depth.
However, because of strong lateral and vertical fracture interconnectivity and high transmissivity, no significant relationship of NO3 is seen with well yield and DOI Fig. Even other major anions and cations do not have any noticeable correlations. Thus the above observation validates AEM derived Hydrolin as a potential groundwater pathway in crystalline hardrock.
The DOI provides the maximum depth limit of deep-seated conductive zones. This may mislead the interpreter to believe that there are continuous vertical fractures from the top to the maximum DOI. In fact, multiple sets of fractures could occur in a single well due to sets of horizontal to sub-horizontal and vertical to sub-vertical fractures. Thus a deep saturated fracture zone will produce a deeper DOI with an increase in the transmitter moment, indicating the presence of water at still deeper levels.
The results obtained by the SCI can be used in principle to create 3D images of subsurface electrical structures. However, we have used constrained inversions that assume the earth structures to be spatially coherent and the regularization concept results in an overall improvement of the resolution of geological structures that may not be well resolved by individual soundings A rigorous 3D inversion simultaneously considering the total survey area 71 , 72 may improve the results.
However, it would require extremely large computational resources in terms of memory, time and parallelization, particularly because fracture zones need very fine meshing. There is no software package currently available commercially to accomplish this objective. The present work emphasizes the importance of regional surveys in finding sustainable groundwater sources in hardrock terrains where most of the shallow wells located in the weathered zone have gone dry due to over exploitation and the challenge lies in locating sustainable groundwater sources in bedrock where limited secondary porosity is provided by sporadically distributed fracture zones.
The results demonstrate that the AEM surveys in combination with borehole data and geological information provide a potential tool to achieve this goal as they are capable of characterizing crystalline hardrocks and lineaments, mapping the spatial extent of fracture networks and associated hydrogeological pathways, termed as Hydrolins, that are derived from the AEM data.
Allen M Shapiro, Ph.D.
The DOI information efficiently demarcates the deep groundwater bearing fracture zones. Their yield potential is determined by the connectivity provided by the Hydrolins. The study also brings out a threshold depth, TGWH, below which the well-connected fracture zones are likely to provide high yielding wells. The AEM data also helps in studying the reduction in the groundwater bearing fracture zones with depth. The groundwater potential of a given watershed thus can be assessed by determining the availability of fracture zones below the TGWH.
Lineaments are important in locating groundwater and the study reveals that Hydrolins provide the most significant clues followed by Maglins and Satlins. Additionally, a precise knowledge of Hydrolins can also be helpful in identifying suitable recharge zones. Knowledge of the fracture network in hardrock terrains is useful to understand regional hydrogeology and provide crucial inputs to simulate the groundwater flow system, and develop sustainable groundwater management plans.
Since the study deals with the important problem of locating sustainable sources of groundwater in hardrocks, it is important that the present results supported by a limited number of groundwater data are further confirmed by expanding the analysis to larger groundwater data sets Famiglietti, J.
Allen M Shapiro, Ph.D.
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Dilatancy in the fracture of crystalline rocks
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