The play, about the Protestant reformer Olaus Petri, was acclaimed for its psychological realism, a novelty at a time when dramas were dominated by the idealistic depiction of characters. Naturalism in drama first emerged as a significant force in the late s, and Strindberg played an important role in this development. His international breakthrough came with his great naturalist tragedies The Father , Miss Julie and Creditors Strindberg was a pioneer of the serious one-act play. He created the first naturalist drama with Miss Julie and shocked his contemporaries. In the preface, he set forth the criteria for a naturalist play: the drama should be unvarnished and close to reality; there should be no fabricated plot, no division into acts, no painted scenery; and the characters should be multidimensional.
In this chamber play, aristocratic Miss Julie is seduced and manipulated into committing suicide by an ambitious servant, Jean.
Other naturalist dramas by Strindberg include The Stronger and Pariah both , which respectively describe the struggles between two women and two men. Other plays with a fairy-tale quality are Simoom and the play The Keys of the Kingdom of Heaven Form-wise the play broke new ground: reality and dreams are interwoven with a doppelganger motif and surreal dream scenes. The story centres on the daughter of the god Indra, who comes down to earth. Strindberg wrote about its unusual structure in the preface:. Time and space do not exist; the imagination spins, weaving new patterns on a flimsy basis of reality: a mixture of memories, experiences, free associations, absurdities and improvisations.
The characters split, double, multiply, evaporate, condense, dissolve and merge. A realistic contemporary satire, it incorporates colloquial language and an earthiness that were unusual in novels of that time. In many of his subsequent works, Strindberg maintained the biting social criticism found in The Red Room. As in his prose, Strindberg used colloquial language, writing in free or irregular verse. Thematically, the poems range from satire to more delicate works about love and the archipelago.
In The Son of a Servant , he recounts his upbringing and early years as a writer. Nonetheless, it is not an autobiography; the novel is told in the third person. Nor is Strindberg completely reliable as the narrator of his life. For instance, he presents his upbringing as far more proletarian than it actually was.
The work generated considerable discussion about the way the wife was portrayed. Previously, he had launched a direct attack on the feminism of the day and on marriage as an institution in his two-volume short story collection, Getting Married Between and , Strindberg underwent a severe religious and mental crisis, the so-called Inferno crisis referred to above.
After a long break in his writing, he wrote the novel Inferno , which describes a tortured soul consumed by delusions of supernatural powers.
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Legends and Jacob Wrestles were continuations of Inferno. The Inferno crisis also gave rise to perhaps his most scathing work, From an Occult Diary — His lifelong love of the place imbued his prose and his paintings. A recurring theme in his archipelago books is the conflict between town and country, civilization and nature.
Even in his own time, Strindberg was considered by many to be a misogynist, which he emphatically denied. Is it possible to read Strindberg and overlook the scathing depictions of women? To what extent was his view of women the effect of an unstable mind? In which case, how should we approach his work? Last updated: 11 September Welcome to the official site of Sweden. Discover the facts and stories of our country. Other official Sweden sites Travelling to Sweden?
In Germany, intense eye contact is a daily occurrence — to such an extend that expats and visitors have dubbed it The Germanic Stare Down. In Germany, you can never assume that a store or restaurant will accept credit card payments: Germans prefer good old cash.
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Also, be prepared to pay for any plastic bags if you forgot to bring your reusable ones and to pack your groceries yourself. Home Welcome to EF. Programs See everything we do. Offices Find an office near you.
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About EF Who we are. Careers Join the team. The latest on travel, languages and culture by EF Education First. Back Topics. Sunday afternoon is reserved for coffee and cake The British have their tea time, the Germans celebrate their coffee and cake tradition — especially on weekends.
Everyone in the sauna is naked Germans are much more comfortable with being naked than most other Europeans and Americans. Cash is king In Germany, you can never assume that a store or restaurant will accept credit card payments: Germans prefer good old cash. Experience Germany's charming quirks for yourself Learn More.
Chapter 9. After a stint as freelance editor and film-maker, he completed his first novel, The Hunter , which was an instant bestseller and introduced readers to a genuine antihero, Victor, an assassin with a purely logical view on life and whose morals are deeply questionable. Like Victor, Tom is passionate about physical sport, being both a huge boxing fan and practising Krav Maga martial arts, which has seen him sustain a number of injuries.
He has not, however, ever killed anyone. Chapter 5.
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